Capital formation in Latin America and the inflationary process | Raúl Prebisch

 


From The Economic Development of Latin America and its principal problems

Raúl Prebisch, 1950. Translated by ECLA.


 

The margin of savings depends ultimately upon the progressive increase of labour productivity. Though the level of productivity achieved by some Latin-American countries is such that, by means of a judicious policy, they would be able to reduce the amount of foreign capital needed to supplement national savings to moderate proportions, in the majority of them this capital is admittedly indispensable.

In actual fact, productivity in these countries is very low owing to lack of capital; and the lack of capital is due to the narrow margin of savings resulting from this low productivity. The temporary help of foreign capital is necessary if this vicious circle is to be broken without unduly restricting the present consumption of the masses, which, generally speaking, is very low. If this capital is effectively used, the increase in productivity will, in time, allow savings to accumulate which could be substituted for foreign capital in the new investments necessitated by new technical processes and the growth of the population.

Continue reading →

Advertisements

Parmenides of Elea

Continuously walk on the road of Reason; never arouse yourself with the imperceptible. But the road never appears on the front of life—it is only staged and mystified on its back. In Parmenides we see a much different concretion than that of Heraclitus and… And what? It bothers the mind; it excites the spirit. Poetry and philosophy arrive at a coherence, here. This “coherence” permeates the trace and line draped around Philosophy, so far, in abstraction. Present what is, artistically through incursion in thought and excursion of poems. Proem and poem. Parmenides knows that whatever comes in his direction, will be dealt in a proper manner. When our philosopher speaks, the Divine is to be heard. Such is the point of his disdain: there is no other way of comprehending and dissenting than through intervention. How can there be a becoming if what is already is? Procedural sublimation of conflicting pluralities is illusory, for our philosopher. Sense perception is to be understood as incapable of reaching truth, if it concerns itself solely with contradictions.

As it was with Heraclitus, with his disgust towards common opinions, so it was with Parmenides. He presented his own words as the enunciation of Truth, stemming from a Goddess. Truth was divine and had to be declared in a poetic form. Such is the reason, from the beginning of his poem until the moment the Goddess reveals the Truth itself, for the existence of a sacred movement—followed with sacred images and fantastical allegories—in  the staging of Parmenides’ thought. Positioned as a philosopher-poet, Parmenides delivered his thought in such manner. His poem dealt with a major problem of Philosophy: that of being. In this case, although making himself to be a carrier of divine words, Parmenides expelled instead philosophical words. Such interrelation to the religious is, without a doubt, a result of the influence he absorbed from Pythagoras’s religious sects. As a citizen of Elea, he was made to be concerned with the public interests of the Polis, subjected to the discursive reason that reigned within the confines of the city.

Continue reading →

1. “Critique to a Dualistic Reason: the platypus”, Francisco de Oliveira

This series will attain itself in the translation of Francisco de Oliveira’s “Critique to a Dualistic Reason: the platypus”. It will be used, for the translation, the 4th reprint of the author’s work (OLIVEIRA, Francisco de. Crítica à razão dualista: o ornitorrinco. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2013, primeira edição, quarta reimpressão). Notes from the translator will be identified with “T. N.” (translator’s note).

V. S. Quintas


This essay was written as an attempt to answer the interdisciplinary questions drafted by CEBRAP [Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning] regarding the socioeconomic process of the expansion of capitalism within Brazil. CEBRAP’s endowment for such a peculiar intellectual environment of discussion favored the authors endeavor. The author is thankful for the criticisms and suggestions from his colleagues, particularly José Arthur Giannotti, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Octavio Ianni, Paul Singer, Francisco Weffort, Juarez Brandão Lopez, Boris Fausto, Fábio Munhoz and Regis Andrade, as well as Caio Prado Jr. and Gabriel Bolaffi, who participated in seminars about the text. Any fault or error found in this document cannot be attributed to any of them, evidently.

Continue reading →

Write.

I wondered through certain places, and all I saw were pretenders. Those who are soft to talk, soft to think. Those who think nothing about everything. They read, write and speak: they profess words devoid of any and every meaning. God, how much they talk. Everything is within their grasp. Opinions that are more shallow than their writings. They read, write and speak: they have nothing to show. Despair before the nothingness they uphold. Pretenders that mimic others. Mimesis is art; but they are not artists. Exclude and include aleatory words into their own existence to justify the emptiness that is their reasoning. Now they scream against reason, too. There is nothing to be fulfilled. No duty to be conquered, no meaning to be disputed. Words are nulled under the guise of their suspicion. A disease of this malign individuation, yes. Cynics – with more beliefs than the most radical religious principled person. Hold onto the justification of your very own position of significance; thrive towards a pretentious self-satisfying institutional recognition. But never forget: do that in the name of something. Something that isn’t a God or many Gods. You are a pretender, after all. Continue reading →

Imperialismos

1. “Imperialismo: fase superior do capitalismo”, Vladimir Lenin.

Em seu texto, Lenin busca <<decifrar>> as básicas fundamentações de um período de desenvolvimento do capital (e do capitalismo por si), que mescla em sua condição um assentamento geral da classe dominante e uma surgente inquietação nas classes exploradas. Decifrar como as condições do desenvolvimento do capitalismo se faz em um momento que a mundialização extensiva das forças produtivas, das relações sociais, dos meios políticos capitalistas se faz uma regra posta em prática, é o objetivo do texto.

Esta mundialização do capital é dada em uma etapa do capitalismo chamada de Imperialismo. Pode ser caracterizada através de uma cadeia hierárquica que retroativamente determina uma a outra categoria descrita.

A mundialização em si é uma característica intrínseca ao capitalismo, porém sua forma decorrente se faria uma nova mutação das forças exploradoras em delinear sua hegemonia. Em via de regra, podemos caracterizar a mundialização desta forma:

  1. Concentração e centralização de capitais, implicando na formação de monopólios e oligopólios;
  2. Fusão do capital produtivo (industrial) com o bancário, e vice-versa, constituindo o capital financeiro;
  3. Aumento da importância das “exportações de capitais” (IED e empréstimos internacionais), em oposição ao comércio tradicional.

Continue reading →

Páginas de um diário

Afirmai o significado sem antes se atentar ao horizonte do sentido apresentado na clareira do ser. Equivocai-vos. Este significado, o objeto da verdade em si mesma, pode apenas ser captado pelos entes que caminham em direção à esta abertura, esta clareira… No meio da densa plenitude de significados, ela permite o ser a observar a sua própria condição de existência – desprovida de uma autenticidade própria. Sem tal clareira, o ser permite a si mesmo apenas o nada: o emaranhado de significados alheios destituí-o de sua própria essência; transpõe-o na infinitude de entes que o sufocam. Perde-se a essência, querido leitor. Perde-se a verdade. Que servem os significados que lhe são alheios? Postos ao vosso redor, sucumbirão à vossa ira! O ser necessita da verdade… não dos significados. Mas, bah. Escrevas com o sangue da dor, caro leitor, e estarás a escrever sempre com vossa verdadeira natureza. As mãos clamam o fim da angústia; os pequenos pensamentos em aforismas hão de ser descartados em favor de um retorno dialético à prosa em si.


Como sereis conciso ao mesmo tempo que permites a existência de um ‘campo’ de sentidos existir junto a si? Não haverá modo de determinar tal fato, ou permitir que seja apresentada uma resposta. A extensão do pensamento indica um aprofundamento, um certo tipo de paciência em digerir cada frase, cada pensamento. É, decididamente, o fim da angústia e da ansiedade [pelo passado] que permite a criação. Como pensar, se o que é apresentado na abertura se faz na forma de um puro e indestrutível terror? Apenas em rasas frases, amigo, no sentido de curtas e desprovidas de um dado desenvolvimento inteligível… Mas escrever enquanto se é afogado na angústia é, deveras, prazeroso. A dor e o prazer adoram a si mesmas.


O pervertido assume a posição de amigo – do mais perfeito amigo: sua missão, delegada por si à si mesmo, é servir sua condição egótica. Ah, mas com o intuito de aterrorizar o outro. A amizade é apenas sua ferramente para ‘servir’ seu amigo de forma escatológica. Plena destruição. Objetivo de reassegurar sua pretensão à um tipo de reflexiva inferioridade, que pode ser apenas alcançada pelo uso explícito da mentira desconexa. O iludido pensa iludir os outros. Seu ódio pelo que se abre ao ser, pela essência da verdade, é seu combustível. O ‘bom’ e ‘belo’, para este indivíduo em questão, é vossa morte; sua vida, resume-se em fingir morrer. Pretende-se a vida para re-encenar a morte. Farsa em última instância, poesia ulterior. O poeta invoca a fervura do sangue, meu caro.  Este enuncia suas próprias palavras como sendo a reprodução divina do logos; mas mesmo assim, corrompe-as com suas relativas desconstruções deslocalizadas. Consciente disto, ele continua! Um ser-para-a-morte? Não. O poeta é um narcisista – um amante de si, que negativamente reafirma sua própria condição, evidentemente superiora, através do enforcamento da essência… do significado.

Heraclitus of Ephesus

The passing of time takes its toll on the understanding and comprehension of Ancient philosophies. But the rummage…the unconcealment  of what was hidden from our eyes, the recollection of what once was – not of a «commonness» but of an essence of knowledge – always leads us to thinkers of times gone. Should one ponder whether philosophy is nothing but an eternal return to these times, one would realize that this «return» is never wholesome. As a return, it never is fully able to grasp what once was plainly put; nevertheless, it grasps change. Perhaps a misconception, there we shall envision a growing inward discontent in the «beating», as if were, of philosophy, lest we free Chronos to devour past known aspects of human understanding, reason and life.

This article is meant as a stepping stone. That there is no such thing as a finished way to understand Heraclitus, or any other member of the pre-Socratic era, it is to be proposed from such inquiries. Here, and throughout the development of such text, we will dwell into the intrinsic conditions and prepositions of such a system of knowledge that is unveiled before the reading of such philosophers. One should bear in mind that to read the pre-Socratics is to read the actuality of a transition from myth to reason. Be aware. Ancient philosophy ought to be seen differently.

Heraclitus’s taste, and distaste, with his own society led him to turn away from the very public life his peers actively engaged in. Betrayed by the patricians of his city-state, he saw life inside the political realm as the mediation of inflexible opinions. Our philosopher in question, then, decided to lead an isolated life – delivering himself into ironic thinking: distanced and prideful. He developed critical thought according to his way of life. His style was based on maxims – made in such a manner to confuse others, obliging them to stop and listen his own enigmas. He was a master of riddles and of obscurity, reflecting a rebellious condition.

Continue reading →